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With thanks to all, STARS celebrates over 3.9 million visitors!

STARS has passed the 900 mark.


Updated Fridays With A New Star

Star Count: 947

Created by Jim Kaler, Prof. Emeritus of Astronomy, University of Illinois

This week's stars are OMI SGR (Omicron Sagittarii)

Scroll down for the past 10-plus stars, Places to Go, and the complete stellar archive.

Welcome! STARS presents a comprehensive suite of pages that tell the stories of stars and their constellations. Please explore and enjoy. The stars listed below have all appeared as a Star of the Week on Skylights. The first five tables list the stars alphabetically by proper name (where available, otherwise by Greek letter name, catalogue number, or variable star designation). Stars known principally by Flamsteed number are listed in the sixth table. The last table then arranges the stars by Greek letter name within their parent constellations, which are linked to labelled photographs that show the stars' locations.

STARS now contains:

Notes to readers: The temperatures of the stars are in degrees Kelvin, which are centigrade (Celsius) degrees above absolute zero, -273 degrees C (-459 degrees F). Stellar and orbital radii are commonly given in Astronomical Units, where the AU is the average distance between the Earth and Sun (technically the semi-major axis of the Earth's orbit), equal to 150 million kilometers or 93 million miles, or in solar radii, where the solar radius is 696,000 km (432,000 miles). Stellar distances are in light years, where the light year is the distance light travels in one year, equal to 63,270 AU (and 0.3066 parsecs, where the parsec equals 206,265 AU, 3.2616 light years). Unless a star is too far away, or is determined by other more precise means, its distance is taken from the Hipparcos parallax catalogue, using the second reduction after July 1, 2009, for all first magnitude stars, or where indicated in the description of the star. Unless otherwise stated, stellar luminosities are total (bolometric) luminosities that include ultraviolet and infrared radiation.

Star descriptions represent the state of knowledge at the time of writing, and are not updated unless brought to special attention. In that sense they are archival. Undated descriptions were written prior to January 26, 2007.


Skylights presents the weekly sky and a photo of the week. Stars arranged by spectral class and variable star class using proper names. Stars arranged by spectral class and variable star class using Greek letter names.
The Natures of the Stars provides a linked introduction to stars and star lives. SPECTRA provides a linked and illustrated introduction to the spectra of the stars. From the Sun to the Stars: the OLLI Lectures provides a linked, illustrated introduction to astronomy.
The Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram presents the different kinds of stars and an introduction to star lives. The Constellations presents a complete linked list along locations and brightest stars. Constellation Maps shows the locations of the constellations on six charts.
Tour the Milky Way. The 172 Brightest Stars, through magnitude 3.00. The Planet Project shows stars with orbiting planets.
Visit The Planetary Nebulae, with images from the past and present. See prominent star clusters and enjoy Poor Blue Straggler. Take a trip to the Galaxy's Anticenter, its variables and clusters. Compare with the Milky Way at the Galaxy's Center.
See a deep photo and naked-eye polar stars in the Polar Project. See The Sun. Look at pages from classical star atlases.
Read more on stars in Stellar Stories. See Measuring the Sky to learn about the celestial sphere. Read a brief discussion of Star Names.
Know the Greek alphabet, used in naming stars. See planets move against the background stars. Advances in Astronomy, 1989-2011.
Skylights has an Archive and Photo Gallery back to September 25, 1998. See sunsets, rainbows, the Moon and planets, and other sky phenomena in Sunlight. Go from Day Into Night, with 83 linked illustrations.
Enjoy Our Complex Universe: A Human Understanding through Art, with 12 illustrations. The Aurora has an explanation and images. See scenic aspects of the Moon at Moon Light.
Go to MoonScapes for labelled telescopic images of the Moon and other lunar information. See and understand the ocean tides. Love the stars? The StarGazer may be playing in a planetarium near you.
The History and Philosophy of the site. Take a ride aboard Asteroid 17851 Kaler (1998 JK). Examine a variety of Jim Kaler's books about stars.

See SG Logo

ASPSupport science literacy by joining the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, an international organization that is among the world's premier providers of astro education. Get Mercury and a variety of other benefits; see some excerpts.

Presenting three audio courses with 70-100 page study guides, narrated and written by Jim Kaler.
Heavens Above: Stars, Constellations, and the Sky from Recorded Books. Astronomy: Earth, Sky, and Planets, is available from Recorded Books. Astronomy: Stars, Galaxies, and the Universe, is also now available from Recorded Books.
Astronomy: Earth, Sky, and Planets is published as Vault of the Heavens: Exploring the Solar System's Place in the Universe by Barnes and Noble.

Read Heaven's Touch: From Killer Stars to the Seeds of Life, How We Are Connected to the Universe, Princeton University Press, 2009, now in Chinese translation.

Learn about stellar spectra in SS STARS AND THEIR SPECTRA: An Introduction to the Spectral Sequence, Second Ed., with two new chapters and 140 new illustrations, Cambridge University Press (UK or North America), 2011.

From the Sun to the Stars: the OLLI Lectures provides a linked, illustrated introduction to astronomy.

NEW in Stellar Stories: "Dangerous Waters," a tale of Hydra and Hydrus.

SSNEW! FIRST MAGNITUDE: A book of the Bright Sky, World Scientific, 2013. Read the interview with Jim Kaler.

IT'S HERE!, From the Sun to the Stars by Jim Kaler, World Scientific, 2016, a new book based on From the Sun to the Stars: the OLLI Lectures, which provides a linked, illustrated introduction to astronomy.

The new star, for September 8, 2017, is OMI SGR (Omicron Sagittarii), a standard giant, one of the great number that fill the sky and help form the constellations and one that helps make the "Teaspoon" of Sagittarius.

the next star will appear September 22.

The past 10-plus stars were, for:

Updates within the past year are indicated in the tables below by an asterisk (*); stars with illustrations are marked by "&," those with planets in the Planet Project by "#."

Planetary Nebulae has added the visual and near-ultraviolet spectrum of NGC 2440.

See also the Orion Nebula and its color spectrum.

See the new images of the Pleiades and the Double Cluster.


a Car AB Aur & Acamar Achernar Achird Acrux Acubens Adhafera
Adhara AE Aur Ain # Aladfar Al Athfar Albaldah Albali Albireo
Alchiba Alcor Alcyone Aldebaran Alderamin Al Dhanab Al Dhibain "Posterior" Al Dhibain "Prior"
Alfecca Meridiana Alfirk Algedi & Algenib Algenubi Algieba #& Algol & Alhena
Alifa al Farkadain Alioth Al Kab Alkaid Alkalurops Algorab Al Kaphrah Alkes
Almaaz & Almach Al Minliar al Asad Al Nair Alnasl Alnilam Alnitak Al Niyat (Sigma)
Al Niyat (Tau) Alpha Ant Alpha Aps Alpha Ara Alpha Cae Alpha Cam Alpha Cha Alpha Cir
Alpha Dor Alpha For Alpha Hor Alpha Hyi* Alpha Lac Alpha Lyn Alpha Men Alpha Mic
Alpha Mon Alpha Mus Alpha Oct Alpha Pic Alpha Pyx Alpha Ret Alpha Scl Alpha Sct
Alpha Sex Alpha Tel Alpha Tuc Alpha Vol Alphard* Alphecca (Gemma) Alpheratz Alrescha
Alsafi Alsciaukat Alshain Al Shat & Altais (Nodus II) Altair & Al Tarf Alterf
Al Thalimain Posterior Al Thalimain Prior Aludra Alula Australis & Alula Borealis Alya & Al Zirr Ankaa
Anser Antares Anwar al Farkadain Arcturus Arkab Posterior Arkab Prior Arneb Arrakis
Ascella Asellus Australis Asellus Borealis Asellus Primus Asellus Secundus Asellus Tertius Asmidiske Aspidiske
Atik Atlas Atria Avior Azha Barnard's Star Baten Kaitos BC CMi
Beid Bellatrix Beta Ara Beta Cam Beta Com Beta CrA Beta Crt Beta Dor &
Beta Equ Beta Gru Beta Hor Beta Hya* Beta Hyi* Beta LMi & Beta Lup Beta Mon
Beta Mus & Beta Pav Beta Phe & Beta Pic # Beta PsA Beta Scl Beta Sct Beta Ser
Beta Sex Beta Sge Beta TrA Beta Tri Beta Tuc Betelgeuse Biham BQ Gem


Canopus Capella & Caph Castor & Cebalrai Celaeno Chara Chertan
Chi Aql Chi Aqr Chi Aur Chi Car Chi Cen Chi Cet Chi Cnc Chi Cyg
Chi Eri Chi Her Chi-1 Hya & Chi-2 Hya & Chi Lup Chi Oph Chi-1 Ori & Chi-2 Ori
Chi Peg Chi Sco Cor Caroli CU Vir Cujam Cursa Cygnus X-1 & Dabih
Delta And Delta Aql Delta Aur & Delta Boo Delta Cen Delta Cep Delta Cet Delta-1 CMi
Delta Col Delta Crb Delta Crt Delta Cru Delta Cyg Delta Del Delta Equ Delta-1 Gru
Delta-2 Gru Delta Her Delta Hya Delta Lib Delta Lup Delta-1 Lyr & Delta-2 Lyr & Delta Pav
Delta Per Delta Psc Delta Sct Delta Ser Delta Sge & Delta Tra Delta Tri Delta Vel &
Delta Vir Delta Vol Deneb & Deneb Algedi Deneb Al Okab Aus Deneb Al Okab Bor Deneb Dulfim Deneb Kaitos
Denebola Dheneb Diadem Dschubba & Dubhe Edasich # Electra Elnath
Eltanin Enif Eps And Eps Ari Eps Cap Eps Cen Eps Cep Eps CrA
Eps CrB Eps Cru Eps Dra Eps Equ & Eps Eri # Eps Gru Eps Her Eps Hya*
Eps Ind Eps Lep Eps Lup & Eps Lyr & Eps Mon & Eps Mus Eps Per Eps Sco
Eps Sct Eps Ser Eps UMi Errai # Eta Aql & Eta Aqr Eta Car Eta Cen
Eta Cep Eps Sct Eta CMi Eta CrB & Eta Cru Eta Crv & Eta Cyg Eta Her
Eta Hya Eta Leo Eta Lup Eta Per Eta Sco Eta Ser Eta Sgr EZ CMa
EU Del Fomalhaut &# FF Aql Fum al Samakah Furud G Sco Gacrux Gamma Ara
Gamma Cas Gamma Col Gamma CrA & Gamma CrB & Gamma Crt Gamma Del Gamma Dor Gamma Equ
Gamma Her Gamma Hya* Gamma Hyi* Gamma Lep Gamma Lib Gamma Lup & Gamma Mic Gamma Mon &
Gamma-2 Nor Gamma Pav Gamma Per Gamma Phe Gamma Psc Gamma PsA Gamma Scl Gamma Sct
Gamma Ser Gamma Sge Gamma TrA Gamma Tri Gamma Vol Garnet Star & Giausar Gienah Corvi
Gienah Cygni Girtab GG Lup Gmb 1830 UMa Gomeisa Gorgonea Secunda Gorgonea Tertia Graffias (Acrab)


Hadar (Agena) & Haedus I & Haedus II & Hamal HD 10180 Hyi # HD 11131 Cet HD 20367 Ari # HD 50554 Gem #
HD 140283 Lib HD 188753 Cyg # HD 189733 Vul # HD 195019 Del # HD 210277 Aqr # Heze Hind's Crimson & Homam
HR 6 Phe # HR 286 UMi & HR 306 Cep & HR 1035 Cam & HR 1040 Cam & HR 1107 Cep & HR 1988 Ori # HR 2447 CMa #
HR 2622 Mon # HR 2877 Gem # HR 3497 Vel # HR 4067 UMa # HR 4686 UMi & HR 4691 Crv & HR 6094 Sco # HR 6535 Sco &
HR 6817 Dra # HR 6907 Sgr # HR 7272 Lyr # HR 7291 Sgr # HR 7907 Del # HR 8734 Psc # HR 8752 Cas HR 8799 Peg #
HR 8938 Cep & Hyadum I Hyadum II Hydor Iota Ari Iota Cas & Iota Cen Iota CMa &
Iota Cnc Iota Cyg Iota-1 Cyg Iota Gem Iota Her Iota Hor # Iota Leo Iota Lep
Iota Lib & Iota Lup Iota Peg & Iota Per Iota Psc Iota-1 Sco Iota-2 Sco Izar
Jabbah Kaffaljidhma Kakkab Kappa Aql Kappa Cas Kappa Cen Kappa-1 Cet & Kappa CMa
Kappa Cnc Kappa CrB # Kappa Cyg Kappa Del Kappa Dra Kappa Gem Kappa Lup Kappa Oph
Kappa Pav Kappa Peg Kappa Psc Kappa Sco Kappa Ser Kappa Tau Kappa UMa Kaus Australis
Kaus Borealis Kaus Media Keid Kitalpha Kochab Kornephoros Kraz Kullat Nunu
Kuma Kurhah KX Lib & l Car L2 Pup La Superba Lambda And* Lambda Ari
Lambda Aur Lambda Boo Lambda Cas & Lambda Cen Lambda Cep & Lambda Cet Lambda CMa Lambda Cyg &
Lambda Eri Lambda Gem Lambda Lep Lambda Lup & Lambda Pav Lambda Ser Lambda Tau Lambda UMi &
Lesath Maia Marfak-East & Marfak-West & Marfik Markab Markeb Marsic
Masym Matar Mebsuta Megrez Meissa Mekbuda Menkalinan Menkar
Menkent Menkib Merak Merope Mesarthim Miaplacidus Mimosa Minkar
Mintaka Mira Mirach Mirfak Mirzam Mizar Mothallah Mu And
Mu Aql Mu Aqr Mu Ara # Mu Aur Mu Cen Mu Cet Mu Col Mu Cru
Mu Cyg Mu Eri Mu-1 Gru Mu-2 Gru Mu Her Mu Lep Mu Nor Mu Oph
Mu Ori & Mu-1 Pav Mu-2 Pav Mu Per Mu-1 Sco Mu Tau Mu Vel Muhlifain
Muliphein Muliphen Muphrid Muscida


N Vel Na'ir al Saif Naos & Nashira Nekkar Nihal Nu And Nu Aql
Nu Aqr & Nu Aur & Nu-1 Boo Nu-2 Boo Nu Cen Nu Cep Nu Cet Nu CrB &
Nu Eri Nu Gem Nu Her Nu Hya Nu Oct # Nu Oph Nu Per Nu Pup
Nu Ser Nu Vir Nunki Nusakan Omega Cap Omega Car Omega Cas Omega CMa &
Omega-2 Cyg Omega Eri Omega Gem Omega Hya Omega Leo & Omega Ori Omega Psc Omega-1 Sco
Omega-2 Sco Omega Vir Omicron Aql Omicron And Omicron-1 Cen Omicron-2 Cen Omicron-1 CMa Omicron-2 CMa
Omicron-1 = 31 Cyg & Omicron-2 = 32 Cyg & Omicron Her Omicron-1 Ori Omicron Sco Omicron Sgr Omicron Tau OV Cep &
p Car P Cyg & p Vel & Peacock The Persian Phact Phecda Pherkad
Phi And & Phi Aqr Phi Cas & Phi Cen Phi Dra & Phi Her & Phi-1 Ori Phi Peg
Phi Per Phi Sco Phi Sgr Phi UMa & Phi Vel Pi And & Pi Aql Pi Aur &
Pi Boo Pi Cap Pi-1 Gru Pi-2 Gru Pi Her Pi Hya Pi Leo Pi Men #
Pi-4 Ori Pi-5 Ori & Pi-1 Peg Pi-2 Peg Pi PsA Pi Pup Pi Sco & Pi-1 UMa
Pi-2 UMa # Plaskett's Star Pleione Polaris & Polaris Australis Polaris Gal. Bor. Polis Pollux #
Porrima Praecipua Procyon Propus Proxima Cen Psi And Psi-1 Aqr # Psi Cap
Psi Cyg Psi Dra Psi-2 Dra Psi Ori = Psi-2 Ori Psi Peg & Psi Per Psi Sco Psi Sgr &
Psi UMa Psi Vel q Car q-1 Eri # q Pup q Vel R CrB & R Hya &
R Leo & R Lyr & R Sct & Rana Rasalas Rasalgethi & Rasalhague Rastaban
Regor Regulus Rho And Rho Aql Rho Aqr Rho Aur Rho Boo Rho Cas
Rho CrB # Rho Gem Rho Her Rho Leo Rho Oph Rho Peg Rho Sco Rho Vir
Rigel Rigil Kentaurus & Rijl al Awwa Rotanev RR Lyrae Ruchba Ruchbah & Rukbat
RX Lep S = 10 Sge S = 15 Mon & SabikSadachbiaSadalbari (Lambda) Sadalbari (Mu) Sadalmelik
Sadalsuud Sadr & Saif al Jabbar Saiph Scheat Seat & Segin Seginus
Sham Shaula Shedar & Sheliak & Sheratan Sigma And Sigma Aql Sigma Boo
Sigma Cas Sigma CMa & Sigma CrB Sigma Cyg Sigma Gem* Sigma Lup & Sigma Oph Sigma Ori
Sigma Peg Sigma Pup Sigma Vir Sirius Skat Spica Sualocin Subra & Suhail
Sigma Peg Sulafat The Sun Syrma



T Cen & T CrB T Lyr & Tabit Talitha Tania Australis Tania Borealis Tarazed
Tau And Tau Aur & Tau Boo # Tau Cet Tau CMa Tau CrB Tau Cyg & Tau-1 Eri
Tau-4 EriTau-5 Eri Tau Gem Tau-1 Gru # Tau Her Tau Lib Tau Ori Tau Per &
Tau Pup Tau Sgr Tau Tau & Tau Vir Taygeta Tegmine & Tejat Theta And
Theta Aql & Theta Aqr Theta Ara Theta Aur Theta Cap Theta Car Theta CMa Theta CrB
Theta Crt Theta Dra Theta Gem Theta Her Theta Hya Theta Lup Theta Mus Theta Oph
Theta-1 Ori Theta Per & Theta-1 Tau & Theta-2 Tau & Theta Tuc Theta UMa Theta Vir Thuban*
Tureis U Aql U Del U Ori & Unukalhai Ups And # Ups Aur & Ups Car
Ups Cet Ups Gem Ups Ori Ups Per Ups Sgr Ups UMa Vega & Vindemiatrix
V Pup & VV Cep & VV Crv & VV Ori & V766 Cen V1334 Cyg W Boo Wasat
Wazn W Ori Wezen X Her & X Per & X Sgr X TrA Xi Aql #
Xi Aqr & Xi-1 Cet Xi-2 Cet Xi-1 CMa Xi Cyg & Xi Oph Xi Peg Xi Sco &
Xi Ser Xi Tau XY Lyr Yed Posterior Yed Prior Yildun & YY Gem Zaniah
Zaurak Zavijava Zeta And Zeta Aqr Zeta Ara Zeta Boo Zeta Cas & Zeta Cap
Zeta Cen Zeta Cep Zeta CMi Zeta CrB Zeta Cru Zeta Crv & Zeta Cyg & Zeta Del
Zeta Her Zeta Hya Zeta Lep Zeta Lup Zeta Lyr & Zeta Mon Zeta Oph Zeta Per
Zeta PheZeta Ret Zeta Scl Zeta-1 Sco Zeta Ser Zeta Sge & Zeta Tau Zeta Tuc
Zibal Zosma Zubenelgenubi Zubeneschamali Zubenhakrabi


1 Cam 1 Cen 1 Del 1 Gem 2 Cen 2 Her 2 Lac 2 UMa 2 UMi &
3 Cen 3 Vul 4 Aql 4 Cen 5 Ser 5 UMi 6 Cas 6 Gem 6 Tri
7 Mon 8 Her 9 Cet 10 CVn 10 Dra=CU Dra 10 Her 10 Lac 10 Mon & 10 UMa &
12 Boo & 13 Mon & 14 Aur & 14 Her # 16 Cyg # 16 Dra 17 Com 17 Dra 18 Sco
19 Cep 19 Psc 21 LMi 23 Lib # 23 UMa 24 Sex # 24 UMi & 25 Ori 27 CMa
27 Vir 29 CMa 29 Cyg & 30 Her & 30 Tau 31 Aql 31 Ori 32 Ori & 33 Vir
35=UU Psc 36 Oph & 37 Tau 38 Lyn 39 Tau 40 Per 41 Ari 43 Cas 44 Boo &
45 Leo = CX Leo 47 UMa # 48 Lib 48 Per 51 And 51 Eri 51 Peg # 52 Cyg 53 Aqr &
53 Per & 54 Eri 54 Leo 54 Psc # 55 Cnc # 55 Cyg & 56 Peg 59 Cyg 60 Leo
61 Cyg 61 Vir # 67 Oph 68 Cyg 68 Her & 70 Oph & 70 Vir # 71 Aql 72 Leo
78 UMa & 78 Vir 79 Cet # 83 UMa 89 Her 94 Cet # 95 Her 107 Psc 109 Psc #
109 Vir 119=CE Tau

Constellations and their Stars


To learn more about stars, constellations, and astronomy go to:

American Association of Variable Star Observers
The Astronomical Society of the Pacific
Astronomy Picture of the Day
Chandra X-ray Observatory
The Constellations and their Stars
Hubble Space Telescope
MOST precision photometry satellite
Munich Astro Archiv Constellation Pages
The Mythology of the Constellations
The Night Sky Atlas
Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO)
UCSD Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, Astronomy and Education Outreach
Stereo, studying the Sun in 3D.
Universe Today-Space news from around the Internet, updated every weekday.


The following sources were used to create the Stars of the Week. Thanks to the stellar researchers.

Allen, R. H., "Star Names: Their Lore and Meaning," Dover, New York, reprint, 1963
American Association of Variable Star Observers
The Astronomical Journal
The Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series
Astronomy and Astrophysics: A European Journal
Astronomy and Astrophysics Abstracts, Springer, Heidelberg
Astronomy and Astrophysics Supplement Series
The Astrophysical Journal
The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series
Becvar, A., Skalnate Pleso Atlas of the Heavens
Berry, A., "A Short History of Astronomy," Dover, New York, reprint, 1961
Terrell, D., Mukherjee, J. D., Wilson, R. E., "Binary Stars: A Pictorial Atlas," Krieger Publ., 1992
Burnham, R., Jr., Burnham's Celestial Handbook, Dover, New York, 1978
European Southern Observatory Southern Sky Survey
Hoffleit, D. and Jaschek, C., The Bright Star Catalogue, Fourth Revised Ed., Yale University Observatory, 1982
Hoffleit, D., Saladyga, M., and Wlasuk, P., A Supplement to the Bright Star Catalogue, Yale University Observatory, 1983
Hoffleit, D. and Warren, W. H., Jr., Yale Bright Star Catalogue, Fifth Revision, NASA ADC, 2002
The Hipparcos and Tycho Catalogues, European Space Agency, 1998
Information Bulletin on Variable Stars
Kaler, J. B., "Stars and their Spectra," Cambridge U. Press, 1989
Kaler, J. B., "Astronomy!," HarperCollins, New York, 1994
Kaler, J. B., "Extreme Stars," Cambridge U. Press, 2001
Kaler, J. B., "The Hundred Greatest Stars," Copernicus Books, New York, 2002
Kaler, J. B., "The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Stars," Cambridge U. Press, 2006
Kukarkin, B. V. et al., "General Catalogue of Variable Stars," Astr. Council Acad. Sci. USSR, Moscow, 1970
Kunitzsch, P. and Smart, T., "Short Guide to Modern Star Names/Derivations," Harrassowitz, Berlin, 1986
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
The Observatory
Observer's Handbook, Royal Astron. Soc. Canada, R. Bishop, ed, Toronto, U. Toronto Press
Palomar Sky Survey, Palomar Observatory/California Institute of Technology
Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific
SIMBAD on the Web, CDS, University of Strasbourg
Sky and Telescope
Smyth, W. H. (rev. G. F. Chambers), "A Cycle of Celestial Objects," Clarendon, Oxford, 1881
Tirion, T., Sky Atlas 2000, Sky Publishing Corp., Cambridge, 1981
USNO Washington Double Star Catalog 2001.0, B.D. Mason, G.L.Wycoff, W.I.Hartkopf, G.G.Douglass, C.E.Worley
USNO Fifth Catalog of Orbits of Visual Binary Stars, W. I. Hartkopf, B. D. Mason, C. E. Worley
USNO Washington Double Star Catalog 2006.5, D. D. Mason, G. L. Wycoff, W. I. Hartkopf
USNO Sixth Catalog of Orbits of Visual Binary Stars, W. I. Hartkopf, B. D. Mason
van Leeuwen, F., "Hipparcos, the New Reduction of the Raw Data," Springer, 2007.
Wagman, M., "Lost Stars," McDonald and Woodward, Blacksburg, VA, 2003.

Opening star image from the European Southern Observatory Southern Sky Survey.
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